Unfccc Paris Agreement Countries

Negotiations on the Paris regulatory framework at COP 24 proved to some extent to be more difficult than those that led to the Paris Agreement, as the parties faced a range of technical and political challenges and, in some respects, applied more to the development of the general provisions of the agreement through detailed guidelines. Delegates adopted rules and procedures on mitigation, transparency, adaptation, financing, periodic inventories and other Paris provisions. However, they have failed to agree on rules relating to Article 6, which provides for voluntary cooperation between the parties in the implementation of their NDCs, including by applying market-based approaches. In an effort to « significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change, » the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to commit as quickly as possible to comparing global greenhouse gas emissions and to become carbon neutral by the second half of this century. To achieve these goals, 186 countries – responsible for more than 90% of global emissions – presented CO2 reduction targets prior to the Paris conference, known as « determined national contributions » (INDC). These targets set out the commitments made by each country to reduce emissions until 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic targets for co2 reduction and individual commitments of some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. The Copenhagen 2009 non-binding agreement, which was concluded by only 114 of the 194 contracting parties (UNFCCC, 2010) – in many respects, a precursor to the Paris Agreement (Bodansky, 2016) – signalled an abandonment of Schedule I/non-Annex I by proposing that the least developed countries and SIDS are more flexible in implementing measures to combat climate change than other non-annex countries I (UNFCCC, paragraph 5 2010). In addition, priority will be given to financing adjustment for the « most vulnerable developing countries, » in particular by mentioning the least developed countries, sidS and Africa (UNFCCC, paragraph 8 in 2010). Finally, « incentives » should be provided for low-emission developing countries (without defining them) so that they can continue their low-carbon development (UNFCCC, 2010: paragraph 2010).